Scientists have discovered remnants of the world’s oldest fossil forest — an extensive network of trees around million years old — in a sandstone quarry in the US. The forest is around 2 or 3 million years older than what was thought to be the world’s oldest forest at Gilboa, also in New York State and around 40 kilometres away from the Cairo site. The finding, published in the journal Current Biology, throws new light on the evolution of trees and the transformative role they played in shaping the world we live in today. The team, including researchers from Cardiff University in the UK, mapped over 3, square metres of the forest at the abandoned quarry in the foothills of the Catskill Mountains in the Hudson Valley. Cladoxylopsids, primitive tree-fern-like plants, lacked flat green leaves, and grew in vast numbers at Gilboa, while Archaeopteris had a conifer-like woody trunk and frond-like branches which had green flattened leaves. A single example of a third type of tree was also uncovered, which remained unidentified but could possibly have been a lycopod, the researchers said. The team also reported a ‘spectacular’ and extensive network of roots which was more than eleven metres in length in some places and belonged to the Archaeopteris trees. It is these long-lived woody roots, with multiple levels of branching and small, short-lived perpendicular feeder roots, that transformed the interactions of plants and soils, the researchers said. The researchers said that the Cairo forest is older than the one at Gilboa because the fossils were lower down in the sequence of rocks that occur in the Catskill mountains. Fight against Coronavirus: Full coverage.
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Normalized algorithm for mapping and dating forest disturbances and regrowth for the United States. Skip to Main Content. Skip to Search Box. Skip to Top Navigation Bar. Skip to Left Navigation Bar. Skip to Organizational Offices. Skip to Bottom Navigation. Description Forest disturbances such as harvesting, wildfire and insect infestation are critical ecosystem processes affecting the carbon cycle. The detected disturbances were then separated into two five-year age groups, facilitated by Forest Inventory and Analysis FIA data, which was used to calculate the area of forest regeneration for each county in the USA.
Axis rotation was performed on the plot between DIs of the two matched Landsat scenes in order to reduce any difference of DIs caused by non-disturbance factors. Minor disturbances affecting small areas may be omitted due to the coarse resolution of the aggregated Landsat data, but the major stand-clearing disturbances clear-cut harvest, fire are captured.
Results indicate omission errors of An important application of this remote sensing-based disturbance map is to associate with FIA forest age data for developing a US forest age map. The US forest age map was also combined with the Canadian forest age map to produce a continent-wide forest map, which becomes a remarkable data layer for North America carbon cycle modeling.
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Eight different methods for dating the fall of uprooted trees were used in a boreal spruce forest in northern Sweden: i cross dating, ii growth release, iii initial growth, iv tree regeneration on the fallen log, v tree regeneration in the pit, vi fell scar, vii reaction wood, and viii stage of decay. First, we calibrated the cross-dating method on tree falls of known age.
Then, to evaluate the limitations of the remaining methods, all methods were used on 23 tree falls of unknown age where the results of cross dating were known to be reliable. Finally, 12 tree falls of unknown age, where cross dating was hard to conduct, were dated using all methods. Most methods gave only the minimum possible age. Cross dating and growth release were the only methods that gave exact-year results i.
World’s oldest fossil trees uncovered in New York
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The Cascadia subduction zone in the Pacific Northwest is known for two things — earthquakes and tsunamis. Most people, however, are unaware that most of the damage from a magnitude 9 earthquake will be from landslides. Despite this looming threat, there is a general lack of understanding of how earthquakes affect the landscape in the Pacific Northwest. The last major fault rupture occurred on January 20, ; the earthquake lowered the coastline and unleashed a tsunami that reached Japan.
However, no single landslide from that earthquake has been definitively pinpointed. In the Oregon Coast Range, there are greater than 30, large bedrock landslides; yet, none of these landslides have been historically observed, though shallow landslides and debris flows abound in the rainy season each year. Klickitat Lake in the Oregon Coast Range has many still-standing Douglas Fir trees that were drowned after a landslide formed the lake. The age of the lake-forming landslide can be ascertained when dendrochronological techniques are applied to wedges extracted from these trees.
So, how can we quantify hazard from landslides during major earthquakes if we do not even know how common landslides were during the last earthquake? Many researchers have aimed to date as many landslides as possible in the Pacific Northwest to ascertain if any are from the earthquake. Radiocarbon dating, where carbon from landslide organic material is compared to the modern atmosphere, is a common landslide-dating technique. Other researchers have measured the surface roughness of landslide surfaces to estimate the time of failure.
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Fossilized roots dating back to million years ago, in Cairo, New York. The researchers say the new site is evidence that forests developed 2 to 3 million years earlier than previously thought. The findings were published recently in the journal Current Biology.
Annual tree rings revealed by radiocarbon dating in seasonally flooded forest of the Mapire School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Yale University.
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Scientists Find the World’s Oldest Known Forest, Dating Back 386 Million Years
By Ryan Morrison For Mailonline. The world’s oldest forest dating back million years to ‘the age of the fish’ has been discovered near New York. The fossilised roots of trees that were thought to be up to 65ft tall were found at the bottom of a quarry in the Catskill region near the small town of Cairo. The forest would have been at its peak during the Devonian period – a time when the majority of life on Earth was in the oceans, according to researchers.
The newly unearthed forest is up to three million years older than the previous ‘oldest forest’ found at Gilboa – also in New York State, about 25 miles away. Some of the fossilised roots there are 6 inches in diameter and form foot-wide horizontal radial patterns spreading out from where the vertical tree trunks once stood. The extensive network of trees would have spread all the way into the neighbouring state of Pennsylvania and beyond.
An international team led by scientists at Binghamton University, New York State Museum and Cardiff University mapped over 32, square feet of forest.
World’s oldest fossil forest dating back 386 million years discovered in US
The occurrence of seasonal growth rings in the wood of Campsiandra laurifolia , Acosmiun nitens , Pouteria orinocoensis and Psidium ovatifolium , common species growing in the flooding forest of the Mapire river, was analyzed using wood anatomy and ring- width analysis. The test of the annual ring formation was performed using radiocarbon analysis based on the nuclear weapon effect. All species showed growth rings visible to the naked eye.
The ring boundaries in all cases were marked by bands of marginal parenchyma. The index ring-width curves of the four studied species showed a strong relationship with the fluctuation of the water river level during the non flooded months, suggesting that an increase in the water level during these months positively influenced the growth indicating that the rings were formed on an annual basis.
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Our newspaper sponsored a blind date for two students to have a nice dinner out in downtown Winston-Salem, in which they had the opportunity to talk and get to know each other on a deeper level. We received 57 applications — far more than we could have anticipated. In response to several of the application questions, which asked students about their ideal dates and dream romantic partners, we identified many themes and commonalities.
In contrast to stereotypes of campus dating culture, which is often painted as impersonal, rushed and noncommittal, we found that many Demon Deacons yearn for genuine romantic connections with others. Despite the patterns that were shown in the applications, it may often seem as if successful dating at Wake Forest requires getting an in at fraternity parties, and as a result, the Editorial Board believes that fewer students go on meaningful, one-on-one dates than they should. Any activity that draws upon the interests of both daters and allows for genuine and thought-provoking conversation would help fulfill the desires of Wake Forest students to forge connections with others.
Hopefully, we can pave the way for future DeacsInLove, and even if not, for some memorable experiences shared between two people. See author’s posts.